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Internal combustion engines have thermodynamic limits on efficiency, expressed as fraction of energy used to propel the vehicle compared to energy produced by burning fuel. Electric motors are more efficient than internal combustion engines in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle.

However, they are not equally efficient at all speeds. To allow for this, some cars with dual electric motors have one electric motor with a gear optimised for city speeds and the second electric motor with a gear optimised for highway speeds. The electronics select the motor that has the best efficiency for the current speed and acceleration.

While heating can be provided with an electric resistance heater, higher efficiency and integral cooling can be obtained with a reversible heat pump. To avoid using part of the battery's energy for heating and thus reducing the range, some models allow the cabin to be heated while the car is plugged in. Cabin cooling can be augmented with solar power external batteries and USB fans or coolers, or by automatically allowing outside air to flow through the car when parked. Two models of the Toyota Prius include this feature as an option.

This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues:. Like their internal combustion engine ICE counterparts, electric vehicle batteries can catch fire after a crash or mechanical failure. In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree.

The fire broke out several minutes after the driver exited the vehicle. In the United States, General Motors ran in several cities a training program for firefighters and first responders to demonstrate how to safely disable the Chevrolet Volt 's powertrain and its 12 volt electrical system.

The Volt's high-voltage system is designed to shut down automatically in the event of an airbag deployment, and to detect a loss of communication from an airbag control module. The guide also describes methods of disabling the high voltage system and identifies cut zone information.


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The weight of the batteries themselves usually makes an EV heavier than a comparable gasoline vehicle, in a collision, the occupants of a heavy vehicle will on average, suffer fewer and less serious injuries than the occupants of a lighter vehicle; therefore, the additional weight brings safety benefits to the occupant [] despite having a negative effect on the car's performance. Some electric cars use low rolling resistance tires , which typically offer less grip than normal tires.

As of [update] , most electric cars have similar driving controls to that of a car with a conventional automatic transmission. Even though the motor may be permanently connected to the wheels through a fixed-ratio gear and no parking pawl may be present, the modes "P" and "N" are often still provided on the selector. In this case the motor is disabled in "N" and an electrically actuated hand brake provides the "P" mode.

In some cars the motor will spin slowly to provide a small amount of creep in "D", similar to a traditional automatic. When an internal combustion vehicle's accelerator is released, it may slow by engine braking depending on the type of transmission, and mode. An EV would coast when the accelerator is similarly released, if it was not for regenerative braking which mimics the familiar response, and recharges the battery to an extent.

Regenerative brakings also reduces the use of the conventional brakes just as engine braking would in an internal combustion vehicle, reducing brake wear and maintenance costs. Lithium-based batteries are often used for their high power and energy density, although they eventually wear out.

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Batteries with different chemical compositions are in development such as zinc-air battery which could be much lighter. The range of an electric car depends on the number and type of batteries used, and as with all vehicles, the weight and type of vehicle, performance requirements, and the weather. The majority of electric cars are fitted with a display of expected range. This may take into account many factors of how the vehicle is being used, and what the battery is powering. However, since factors can vary over the route, the estimate can vary from the actual achieved range.


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The display allows the driver to make informed choices about driving speed and whether to stop at a charging point en route. Some roadside assistance organizations offer charge trucks to recharge electric cars in case of emergency.

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Where will all the electricity for our electric cars come from?

Electric cars are typically charged overnight from a charging station installed in the owner's house, or from faster charging stations found in businesses and public areas. An overnight charge of 8 hours will only give about a mile charge with a volt outlet whereas a volt outlet would give around miles in the same amount of time. Within each major region of the world, electric car charging stations are essentially universal across car and charger brands, and plugging in a charger into an electric car will charge the car at the fastest rate that car and charger can support.

Some companies have been experimenting with battery swapping to eliminate delay while charging. As with all lithium-ion batteries, electric vehicle batteries may degrade over long periods of time, especially if they are frequently overcharged, however, this may take at least several years before being noticeable. However, Nissan stated in that thus far only 0. Volkswagen, in collaboration with six partners, is developing an EU research project that is focused on automating the parking and charging of electric vehicles.

The objective of this project is to develop a smart car system that allows for autonomous driving in designated areas e. Experimental supercapacitors and flywheel energy storage devices offer comparable storage capacity, faster charging, and lower volatility. They have the potential to overtake batteries as the preferred rechargeable storage for EVs.

What is an Electric Vehicle?

Solar cars are electric vehicles powered completely or significantly by direct solar energy , usually, through photovoltaic PV cells contained in solar panels that convert the sun's energy directly into electric energy, usually used to charge a battery. Qualcomm, Hyundai, Ford, and Mitsubishi are the top patent holders of the close to electric vehicle charging patents filed between and It is followed by the US and then by China.

Battery electric vehicles are most commonly charged from the power grid overnight at the owner's house, provided they have their own charging station. The electricity on the grid is in turn generated from a variety of sources; such as coal , hydroelectricity , nuclear and others. Power sources such as photovoltaic solar cell panels, micro hydro or wind may also be used and are promoted because of concerns regarding global warming.

Charging stations can have a variety of different speeds of charging, with slower charging being more common for houses, and more powerful charging stations on public roads and areas for trips. Most electric cars have used conductive coupling to supply electricity for recharging after CARB settled on the SAE J standard [] as the charging interface for electric vehicles in California in June Another approach is inductive charging using a non-conducting "paddle" inserted into a slot in the car.

Will EVs get cheaper? And when?

During peak load periods, when the cost of generation can be very high, electric vehicles could contribute energy to the grid. These vehicles can then be recharged during off-peak hours at cheaper rates while helping to absorb excess night time generation. Here the batteries in the vehicles serve as a distributed storage system to buffer power. The Renault—Nissan—Mitsubishi Alliance is the world's leading all-electric vehicle manufacturer. Since , the Alliance's global all-electric vehicle sales totaled almost , units, including those manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors through December , now part of the Alliance.

Tesla is the second all-time best-selling pure electric passenger car manufacturer, with over , electric cars delivered worldwide through December The following table lists the all-time best-selling highway-capable all-electric passenger cars with cumulative global sales of around or more than , units since their inception through December Any car can be converted to an electric vehicle using plug and play kits of making custom solutions. The conversion of internal combustion engine cars to electric cars is called Retrofitted Electric Vehicles. Global sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles achieved the one million milestone in September , almost twice as fast as hybrid electric vehicles HEV.

All-electric cars have oversold plug-in hybrids for several years, and by the end of , the plug-in market continues to shift towards fully electric battery vehicles. Several countries have established grants and tax credits for the purchase of new electric cars, often depending on battery size. The U. As of April , 15 European Union member states provide economic incentives for the purchase of new electrically chargeable vehicles, which consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and some alternative fuel vehicles.

Full EVs are expected to account for less than 1 million of the total. As of March , BMW plans 12 all electric vehicles by , using a fifth-generation electric powertrain architecture, which will save weight and cost and increase capacity. In January , GM announced that it plans to make Cadillac its lead electric vehicle brand starting in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about battery electric cars. For the more general category of electric drive for all type of vehicles, see electric vehicles. For cars with electric motors and internal combustion engines, see plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. For fuel cell cars, see fuel cell vehicle. Modern all-electric cars. Nissan Leaf. Renault Zoe. BMW i3 charging on the street. Tesla Model 3. Jaguar I-Pace. Renewable energy portal Environment portal.

Main article: History of the electric vehicle. Main article: Environmental aspects of the electric car. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: rare-earth metals availability and supply security. Main article: Electric car energy efficiency. Main article: Plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents. Main article: Electric vehicle battery.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. March Further information: List of electric cars currently available. Main article: Charging station. Further information: Hybrid vehicle.

The Plug-in Hybrid from Volvo Cars

Main article: Solar vehicle. Main article: charging station. One of the key challenges of electric vehicle charging is their potential implications in terms of peak capacity demand, which can happen when all electric cars start to plug in at the same time as soon as the drivers arrive at their destination. The risk is that expensive grid infrastructure investments may need to be made — as depending on the charging time and travel distance, the additional demand can be twice as big as current peak power demand.

By preventing local network congestions, smart charging could combine both flexibility of use and cost savings for customers and DSOs — especially in low-voltage distribution grids where most of the charging is taking place at private driveways or parking lots. The shift towards a grid-friendly charging behaviour needs to come by way of infrastructural and regulatory improvements.

First, achieving a large widespread of electric cars requires that DSOs are able to use smart charging to manage network constraints when this is more cost-efficient than expanding the grid. Retailer price, terms and vehicle availability may vary. See your Mitsubishi retailer for details. We are trying to improve mitsubishicars. We would greatly appreciate your help by answering the following three questions.

How Do All-Electric Cars Work?

Cash Savings With fewer fill-ups, tax incentives, and a higher resale value, hybrid and electric cars save you money over time. MPGe 74 3. Seats 5. Electric driving FAQs. Are electric cars and hybrid vehicles safe? Are the batteries used in electric cars and hybrid vehicles bad for the environment?